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Güney Karadeniz’de Yeni Fransız Politikası: Pascal Fourcade ve Sinop Konsolosluğu (1803-1809)
2014
Dergi:  
Cahiers Balkaniques
Yazar:  
Özet:

The French Revolution and the invasion of Egypt created a crisis period in Ottoman-French relations and also arrested the French initiatives to trade in the Black Sea from the 17th century. However, on 25 July 1802 with the Treaty of Paris, the French were also given the right to trade in the Black Sea. In this way, France added the Black Sea to his privileges. With the 2nd and 3rd articles of the treaty, France has obtained the right to create consular agents on various points of the Black Sea. In this context, by a decision of 21 September 1802, a general consulate in Sinop and two consular agents in Trabzon and Ereğli, depended to consulate general of Sinop, established. Pascal Fourcade was appointed as consul to Sinop and arrived to the city in the October of 1803. Fourcade was welcomed in a good way in Sinop; but the anarchy reigned in Anatolia after the Tayyar Pasha’s exile, and intrigues of Russian colleague, Konuchenco, Fourcade stayed in difficult situations in the city. In fact, the preference of Sinop, as a general consulate centre was not in accordance with the terms of the period. Although Sinop had one of the best ports of the Southern Black Sea, the city was not as active as in the past on a commercial basis. It is known that Sinop was one of the places that mostly affected by Ottoman-Russian wars. Sinop had profited commercial relation that took place between the north-south ports of the Black Sea under the Ottoman dominance over the Black Sea. Especially in trade with Crimea, Sinop was the main port for Anatolian products. However, ever-expanding dominance of the Russia over the Black Sea, not only affected commercial relations between Black Sea ports but also started a decline period for southern Black Sea ports as Sinop and Trabzon that had strong commercial affairs with northern Black Sea. In this state Sinop was a small coastal town in the beginning of 19th century. But as the French consul stated, Sinop would became a strategic position as a port for trade of Anatolia and Iran in case of favourable conditions. Fourcade had very high expectations for the future of the city. The most important task of French consul was to achieve new markets for French goods; receive raw materials coming from Iran and Anatolia and establish warehouses for goods in Sinop. In this regard, Fourcade was describing the city as a trading port that had a very bright future and comparing the city to Alexandria and Baghdad, and also trying to show that Sinop was better port than Samsun and Trabzon.Fourcade’s these expectations were not only connected to the creation of favourable conditions for trade and establishment of the necessary infrastructure. In fact, the realization of these plans depended on Tayyar Pasha’s power, the governor of southern Black Sea region. As Fourcade’s words, the main purpose of the consul was to establish good relations with Tayyar Paşa and convince him to gains of future French trade in his region. In the spring of 1804, Fourcade met with Tayyar Pasha and achieved positive results for his future plans; but because of obstructions of Russian consul in Sinop Fourcade did not realize his plans that emerged after the consul and Tayyar Paşa’s interview in Bafra. Moreover defeat of Tayyar Pasha by Yusuf Pasha and exile to Sohum in 1805 created a real period of solitude for Fourcade in Sinop.Fourcade was met in early days in Sinop with Russian jealousy. When he arrived to Sinop, the city had been hosting Russian consuls since 1785. So, the biggest obstacle to plans of French consul was the Russian colleague Konuchenco. As the agent of Russia who did not want another European power in Black Sea, Konuchenco showed all his effort to fail Fourcade’s mission in Sinop. In this context it is difficult to say that French Foreign Ministry predicted Russian rivalry in the Black Sea ports. Whereas with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Russian had gained to right to trade in Black Sea and soon after the treaty they established a consular network in the port cities. Sinop was one the port cities that the Russian preferred to create a consular agent. Russian consuls in Sinop were so powerful that they could change kadı of Sinop. There were also very strong relations between Russian consul Konuchenco and Tayyar Paşa who had territories in Crimea consigned to Battal Hüseyin Paşa, father of Tayyar Paşa, in his exile in Russia. In the first two years of consulate, Fourcade complained so often the relations between Tayyar Paşa and Konuchenco and Russian dominance over the Sublime Porte that seen in Sinop. Indeed, until the expulsion of Russian consul in February 1807, a diplomatic war had taken place in Sinop. Both consuls followed each other tightly and try to stop each other’s activities. In this way, in the early years of the 19th century Sinop lived a provincial diplomacy period that created by presence of French and Russian consuls in the city. After the Tayyar Pasha’s exile to Sohum, all the balance in Anatolia had changed. In the period of Tayyar Paşa’s reign in the region, Fourcade had only to try to establish good relation with Tayyar Paşa for French trade; but after 1805, Fourcade rested between a multiple powers in Sinop. In this state the turmoil reigned in Anatolia after the Tayyar Pasha’s exile was a real obstacle for Fourcade’s plans. Furthermore the consulate was attacked by Greek sailor under the Russian protection in 1806 when Fourcade was in Kastamonu. But aggression of 1807 was more drastic for French consulate in Sinop. Fourcade and chancellor of consulate, Bernage, were injured by Laz sailors who participated the turmoil ended Selim iii’ reign, debarked in Sinop in way of their homeland. The expulsion of Russian consul Konuchenco from Sinop by Ottoman-Russian War broke out in 1806 was really created a liberty atmosphere in the city. But Russian-French rapprochement and the Treaty of Tilsit reversed this atmosphere against to French in Anatolia. These new conditions that clearly seen in aggression of 1807, showed also the future of the Fourcade’s mission in Sinop. Although Fourcade’s Sinop consulate did not obtain significant result for French trade; his six-year consulate left us very valuable documents that exist in French foreign ministry archives in Paris and Nantes. These consular reports and detailed travel voyages accounts are very valuable sources for Southern Black Sea region at beginning of the 19th century. Fourcade, like an archaeologist and geographer travelled in his consular district and prepared detailed reports on Sinop, Kastamonu, Ladik and Amasya region. A portion of them were published; but there are also some reports are not reached until now. It is the Fourcade’s archaeological activities that make the Sinop consulate worthwhile in the world of science. But beyond this, archival sources on Fourcade’s six-year consulate, gives us valuable information about on the situation of Anatolia in Age of Ayans at the beginning of the 19th century, Russian impact on the Black Sea and history of Ottoman-French relations in the Black sea. This study aims to make a review on Fourcade’s Sinop consulate by using resources of the French archives.

Anahtar Kelimeler:

New French Policy in the Southern Black Sea: Pascal Fourcade and the Sinop Consulate (1803-1809)
2014
Yazar:  
Özet:

The French Revolution and the invasion of Egypt created a crisis period in Ottoman-French relations and also arrested the French initiatives to trade in the Black Sea from the 17th century. However, on 25 July 1802 with the Treaty of Paris, the French were also given the right to trade in the Black Sea. In this way, France added the Black Sea to its privileges. With the 2nd and 3rd articles of the treaty, France has obtained the right to create consular agents on various points of the Black Sea. In this context, by a decision of 21 September 1802, a general consulate in Sinop and two consular agents in Trabzon and Ereğli, depended to the general consulate of Sinop, established. Pascal Fourcade was appointed as a consul to Sinop and arrived in the city in October of 1803. Fourcade was welcomed in a good way in Sinop; but the anarchy reigned in Anatolia after the Thai Pasha's exile, and intrigues of Russian colleague, Konuchenco, Fourcade stayed in difficult situations in the city. In fact, the preference of Sinop, as a general consulate center was not in accordance with the terms of the period. Although Sinop had one of the best ports of the Southern Black Sea, the city was not as active as in the past on a commercial basis. It is known that Sinop was one of the places that mostly affected by Ottoman-Russian wars. Sinop had profited the commercial relationship that took place between the north-south ports of the Black Sea under the Ottoman dominance over the Black Sea. Especially in trade with Crimea, Sinop was the main port for Anatolian products. However, ever-expanding dominance of Russia over the Black Sea, not only affected commercial relations between Black Sea ports but also started a decline period for southern Black Sea ports as Sinop and Trabzon that had strong commercial affairs with northern Black Sea. In this state Sinop was a small coastal town in the beginning of the 19th century. But as the French consul stated, Sinop would become a strategic position as a port for trade of Anatolia and Iran in case of favourable conditions. Fourcade had very high expectations for the future of the city. The most important task of the French consul was to new markets for French goods; receive raw materials coming from Iran and Anatolia and establish warehouses for goods in Sinop. In this regard, Fourcade was describing the city as a trading port that had a very bright future and comparing the city to Alexandria and Baghdad, and also trying to show that Sinop was better port than Samsun and Trabzon.Fourcade's these expectations were not only connected to the creation of favourable conditions for trade and establishment of the necessary infrastructure. In fact, the realization of these plans depended on Tayyar Pasha's power, the governor of the southern Black Sea region. As Fourcade’s words, the main purpose of the consul was to establish good relations with Tayyar Pasha and convince him to gains of future French trade in his region. In the spring of 1804, Fourcade met with Tayyar Pasha and achieved positive results for his future plans; but because of obstructions of the Russian consul in Sinop Fourcade did not realize his plans that emerged after the consul and Tayyar Pasha's interview in Bafra. Moreover defeat of Tayyar Pasha by Yusuf Pasha and exile to Sohum in 1805 created a real period of solitude for Fourcade in Sinop. When he arrived in Sinop, the city had been hosting Russian consuls since 1785. So, the biggest obstacle to plans of the French consul was the Russian colleague Konuchenco. As the agent of Russia who did not want another European power in the Black Sea, Konuchenco showed all his efforts to fail Fourcade's mission in Sinop. In this context it is difficult to say that the French Foreign Ministry predicted Russian rivalry in the Black Sea ports. Whereas with the Treaty of Little Kaynarca, Russian had gained to right to trade in the Black Sea and soon after the treaty they established a consular network in the port cities. Sinop was one of the port cities that the Russian preferred to create a consular agent. Russian consuls in Sinop were so powerful that they could change the woman of Sinop. There were also very strong relations between the Russian consul Konuchenco and Tayyar Pasha who had territories in Crimea consigned to Battal Hussein Pasha, father of Tayyar Pasha, in his exile in Russia. In the first two years of consulate, Fourcade complained so often the relations between Tayyar Pasha and Konuchenco and Russian dominance over the Sublime Porte that seen in Sinop. Indeed, until the expulsion of the Russian consul in February 1807, a diplomatic war had taken place in Sinop. Both consuls followed each other tightly and tried to stop each other’s activities. In this way, in the early years of the 19th century Sinop lived a provincial diplomacy period that was created by the presence of French and Russian consuls in the city. After the Thai Pasha's exile to Sohum, all the balance in Anatolia had changed. In the period of Tayyar Pasha's reign in the region, Fourcade had only to try to establish good relationship with Tayyar Pasha for French trade; but after 1805, Fourcade rested between a multiple powers in Sinop. In this state the turmoil reigned in Anatolia after the Thai Pasha's exile was a real obstacle for Fourcade's plans. Furthermore the consulate was attacked by the Greek sailor under the Russian protection in 1806 when Fourcade was in Kastamonu. But the aggression of 1807 was more drastic for the French consulate in Sinop. Fourcade and chancellor of consulate, Bernage, were injured by Laz sailors who participated in the turmoil ended Selim III' reign, debarked in Sinop in way of their homeland. The expulsion of the Russian consul Konuchenco from Sinop by Ottoman-Russian War broke out in 1806 was really created a freedom atmosphere in the city. But the Russian-French rapprochement and the Treaty of Tilsit reversed this atmosphere against the French in Anatolia. These new conditions that clearly seen in the aggression of 1807, showed also the future of the Fourcade's mission in Sinop. Although Fourcade's Sinop consulate did not obtain significant result for French trade; his six-year consulate left us very valuable documents that exist in French Foreign Ministry archives in Paris and Nantes. These consular reports and detailed travel travel accounts are very valuable sources for the Southern Black Sea region at the beginning of the 19th century. Fourcade, like an archaeologist and geographer travelled in his consular district and prepared detailed reports on Sinop, Kastamonu, Ladik and Amasya region. A portion of them were published; but there are also some reports are not reached until now. It is the Fourcade's archaeological activities that make the Sinop consulate worthwhile in the world of science. But beyond this, archival sources on Fourcade's six-year consulate, gives us valuable information about the situation of Anatolia in Age of Ayans at the beginning of the 19th century, Russian impact on the Black Sea and history of Ottoman-French relations in the Black Sea. This study aims to make a review on Fourcade's Sinop consulate by using resources of the French archives.

Anahtar Kelimeler:

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