2019 - Devrim OSKAY,Mert KÜKRER,Aykut KENCE -
Özet:Honeybees are important for pollinating wild and cultured plants. Honeybee diseases and pests have become resistant to the commonly used and previously effective treatment chemicals. Antibiotic treatment of diseases in beehives means that sustained reliance on chemical control measures is not a reasonable method. Different studies have shown that honeybees have genetically determined mechanisms for disease resistance such as hygienic behavior. In this study, we aim for genetic improvement in Muğla Honeybee (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) resistance to American foulbrood diseases. In our study 200 Mugla bee (A. m. anatoliaca) colonies collected from Mugla province. Colonies were identified with genetic methods. The position of Muğla bees of the study among 250 honeybee colonies from 18 provinces of Turkey was determined by making use of 30 microsatellite markers. The colonies were kept in standard Langstroth hives. The experimental colonies were managed using standard beekeeping practices. Colonies evaluated 2 times for hygienic behavior in April each year. To measure hygienic behavior a pin-killed brood assay was used, where all the 100 capped brood cells were counted (a) and cells were punctured using a pin to kill the brood. The treated comb was placed back into the colony and after 24 hours the number of cells that remained capped (b) were recorded. Hygienic behavior (HB) was the number of cells of dead brood that were removed by the honeybees divided by the total number of cells of brood killed. HB= a-b/a x 100. The colonies showing hygienic behavior over %95 in at least two measurements were selected and used as breeder colonies for queen production. Daughter queens were instrumentally inseminated with 10 µl of semen from randomly collected drones from the whole population. All inseminated queens were marked and introduced 3 Langstroth frames nuc boxes with pushing cages. We used the “Closed Population” breeding program. Hygienic behavior increased in the population after 3 years of selection on queens with mating control (instrumental insemination) from 43% in 2012 to 63% in 2013 and further to %91.7 in 2014. Hygienic behavior ratio was significantly different among 2012, 2013 and 2014 (P ≤0.001). Heritability was 0.35 between the 1st and the 2nd years and 0.77 between the 2nd and the 3rd years.
Anahtar Kelime:Honey bee, Breeding, Hygienic behavior, Genetic İdentification, Mugla bees, Apis mellifera anatoliaca