Abstract After the classical educational realism based on the literary works of Mirza Fatali Ahundov, the school of critical realism was formed in Azerbaijani literature in the early 20th century. During this period, socio-political issues came to the front in the literature, and the school of literary realism covering a wide range of subject matters branched out into different types and forms. In this respect, we can see all the subject matters and types of the school of literary realism in the works of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, one of the leaders of Azerbaijani literary life. Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, one of the founders of the school of critical realism in the history of Azerbaijani literary thought, was the editor of famous "Molla Nasreddin" magazine. The formation of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh’s worldviews and his future literary style was influenced by his neighbourhood, his family and environment in which he lived since childhood; they provide us with the clues for better understanding of the writer and for a detailed study of the works of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh called Mirza Jalil by his contemporaries. In this study, the literary portrait of the writer is created by means of a detailed analysis of relevant discussions with regard to the exact date of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh’s birth, impressive details about his childhood environment, marriages, activities, outward appearance, characteristic features, religious views that are generally not overtly commented on, and his struggles within different country regimes throughout his life alongside with other important details.
Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, Mirza Jalil, Molla Nasreddin, Struggle, Religion