2018 - Meral Ekim,Hasan Ekim -
Özet:Among the surgical interventions, it is known that one of the groups in which both physiological and psychological problems are most seen is cardiac surgery. Although coronary artery disease (CAD), one of the important diseases affecting the quality of life of the individual, has various treatment modalities, surgical intervention may be required especially in patients with multiple vessel involvement. Undoubtedly, coronary artery bypass surgery prolongs the life span of patients; however, occlusion may occur after a period of time in both the bypass grafts and native vessels due to the continuation of the atherosclerotic process. In order to delay this event, patients must stay away from the atherosclerotic risk factors. For this reason nutrition is very important. These patients need to rearrange their lifestyle, especially nutrition. These new arrangements include changing their eating habits, quitting if they smoke, going to new arrangements to evaluate their work and leisure, and staying away from the stress. It is known that a diet rich in saturated fats and carbohydrates is an important coronary risk factor. To protect against hypertension, a risk factor for coronary artery disease, the salt content in the foods also should be well adjusted in hypertensive patients. Salt adds a substantial risk to the development of hypertension. To avoid these risk factors, a life-long sustainable healthy diet is very important. In addition, biochemical parameters such as fasting blood glucose level and lipid parameters should be closely monitored and kept at normal levels. Patients who had coronary bypass surgery are advised to take food in low-fat, low-cholesterol, low-salt and abundant fruit and vegetables. The main goal of fat restriction is to limit the consumption of saturated fats and cholesterol, which is thought to increase cardiovascular risk by raising serum LDL cholesterol level. Low fat milk, cheese and dairy products should be preferred. Meat and meat products are the main source of full-fledged protein, but contain significant amounts of animal fat. For this reason, lean meat should be preferred. Oily fish, including omega-3 fatty acids such as anchovies, are a good alternative to meat. These foods have a favorable effect on the cardiovascular system. Patients with coronary artery disease should avoid fried foods. Boiled and grilled dishes should be preferred instead of frying. Animal fats are an important part of daily nutrition. However, excessive intake of fat over recommended levels leads to weight gain and hypercholesterolemia. Fruits and vegetables are sources of important nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, flavonoids and fiber. An adequate amount of fruits and vegetables (about 400 g/day) decreases the risk of myocardial infarction, lowers arterial blood pressure, and helps overweight patients to lose weight. In conclusion, unhealthy nutrition remains one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors leading to coronary artery disease. Pharmacotherapy and lifestyle modifications, including a healthy diet, should be applied together in patients who had coronary bypass surgery.
Anahtar Kelime:Nutrition, Coronary Bypass