2019 - Mehmet YILMAZ - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.516316
Özet:When the Prophet Mohammed peace be upon him was forty years old, he was tasked to invite people to Islam. The religion of Islam secretly spread among the people of Mecca for three years. When the revelation ordered the invitation of Islam to be declared openly, the Prophet has put Allah's commandment into practice. Although the Dawa invitation to Islam has been accepted among some people in the beginning, many Meccan did not accept the position of the Prophet, when he criticized their beliefs or their idols. So, they agreed on to block the spread of dawa to Islam. After a short while, the polytheists started to oppress the Prophet, and torture his followers. When the persecution of polytheists became unbearable; the Prophet, advised Muslims to migrate to the Habasha to protect themselves from what they have already found in Makkah. He, peace be upon him, knew very well that the Islamic Dawa must be strengthened and that Habasha ruled by a fair king who protect anyone comes to his kingdom asking for his protection. Muslims in need of protection followed the advice of the Prophet and emigrated to Habasha. Meanwhile, the Prophet is under the patronage of his uncle Abu Tālib. After the death of Abu Tālib the pressure on the Prophet increased day by day. Moreover, the polytheists even made a plan to eliminate him. The Prophet, who realized that he will be unable to invite to Islam in Mecca, traveled to the Tāif for the purpose of telling his case but was forced to return to Mecca once he met with a harsh reaction in Tāif. In the meantime, the people of Madinah, due to the wars with the Jews and the instability occurred from the conflict between themselves, had been in search of a leader to overcome their turmoil for many years. The Prophet also invited the groups who came to Mecca during the hajj season to Islam. The people of Madinah, who perceived that the Prophet had the qualities to overcome the problems between them, they have pledged allegiance to the Prophet, through the agreements known as Aqaba I and Aqaba II. Thus, the city of Madinah has become ready to meet the migrants, and to become a base area where the Islamic invitation will be strengthened and opened to the World. When Almighty Allah has first allowed believers then the Prophet to migrate to Medina, a new era was opened in Islamic history with Prophet’s emigration to Medina. In the poetries of Prophet’s companions, there are verses that give clues about the migration of the Prophet to Medina. There are five poetry texts belong to, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah, Surâka ibn Malik, an unidentified poet and Abdullah Ibn Rawaha. It is possible to increase the texts to six with the addition of the poetry sang by women and children in Medina in order to welcome the Messenger of Allah. Aforementioned poem texts reflect the developments that have been experienced since the beginning of the period of migration. Indeed, Ali ibn Abi Talib points in the verses out that he was ready to sacrifice his life in order to make sure that the Prophet is safe and sound at all costs, that he spent the night in the Prophet’s bed, that the polytheists never suspected him, that he was willing to fight the polytheists and that he keeps the polytheists under surveillance at all times. Abu Bakr reflects the events of the Sevres, the fate of the pagans who declared war on the Messenger of Allah, and the reasons for the emigration to Medina. He also indicates in the verses that the Prophet was cautious not to be caught by the polytheists, and they walk through the mountainous areas where the night tour is accompanied by an experienced guide, Uraiqid. Also, Abu Bakr narrates the wish of Suraqa Ibn Malik to stop the Hijrah and the miracle of stabbing the horse into hard soil. On the other hand, Suraqa ibn Malik reflects to the verses his experiences during migration in the lines he expressed with detail when responded to Abu Jahl. In the anonymous poem it is narrated that the migrants reached the tents of Om Mabad to the tribe of the Mudlij sons and the miracle of rickety sheep that gave plenty of milk. Abdullah ibn Ravâha, in the construction of the Quba Mosque, says poem to throw away the fatigue of the Muslims, and the Messenger of Allah accompanies him. Finally, when the Prophet reached Medina, the flood of enthusiasm was reflected to express in singing format by the women and children of Medina. On the other hand, the companion poets reflected to the verses their intensity emotions about that the Prophet and his followers were in Medina and that they shared the goods with the migrants. Also, they reflected to the verses their proud that Almighty Allah gave them the name Ansar. In contrast to the long poems, which were produced in accordance with the traditional technique of Jahiliyya poetry, these new poems were short, and they focused on reflecting the instant feelings in the verses in the face of events.
Anahtar Kelime:Arabic Language and Rhetoric, Poetry, Migration, The Messenger of Allah, Polytheist