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COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE MENINGOENCEPHALITIS AMONG CHILDREN ADMITTED TO AL-WAHDA TEACHING HOSPITAL IN ADEN, YEMEN

2019 - Iman Mokammed Bawazeer -

Özet:Objective: To determine the types and frequencies of complications associated with acute meningoencephalitis (ME) among children admitted  to hospitals in Aden, Yemen. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 children (1 month – 14 years of age) admitted to AL-Wahda Teaching Hospital in Aden with acute ME (viral or bacterial) over the period from January to June 2010. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire, and data were presented as frequencies and percentages and analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Differences or associations between categorical variables were considered statistically significant at P values <0.05. Results: ME complications were significantly higher among children aged less than one year compared to those aged one year or older (58.8% vs. 38.5%, respectively) and among those with bacterial ME compared to those with viral ME (79.2% vs. 30.6%, respectively). The complications were also significantly higher among children with history of illness for three or more days before their admission compared to those having been ill for less than three days (65.8 vs. 22.7%, respectively). In addition, children aged less than two years not exclusively breastfed were more prone to ME complications compared to those exclusively breastfed (93.5% vs. 50.0%, respectively). Increased intracranial pressure (ICP), anemia and hypoglycemia were the three most frequent ME complications among children admitted to Al-Wahda Teaching Hospital, being observed in 53.3%, 50.0% and 43.3% of patients, respectively. Increased ICP was significantly higher among children aged five years or older compared to those aged less than five years (88.9% vs. 47.1%, respectively). In contrast, anemia and hyperglycemia were significantly higher among children aged less than five years (56.9% and 49.0%, respectively) compared to those aged five years or older (11.1% each). Conclusions: ME complications are significantly higher among children aged less than one year, infected with bacterial ME, with history of illness for three or more days before their admission and not exclusively breastfed. Increased ICP, anemia and hypoglycemia are the three most frequent ME complications, particularly among children with bacterial ME in Aden, followed by focal neurological deficits seizures and cranial nerve palsy. Although increased ICP is significantly higher among children aged five years or older, anemia and hyperglycemia are significantly higher among children aged less than five years. Active measures to promote immunization and exclusive breastfeeding along with early diagnosis and proper treatment are highly recommended. Further large-scale studies are required to study the pattern of complications following acute ME among Yemeni children. Keywords: Meningoencephalitis, Complication, Intracranial pressure, Seizure, Focal neurological sign, Cranial nerve palsy, Yemen.

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